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Leading up to 1835, Britain had experimented with a few rails. Railways such as the London and Birmingham or the Liverpool and Manchester paid dividends at a rate of 10 percent per annum, the Stockton and Darlington paid 15 percent. On a trip to Venice in the 1840s, Ruskin was horrified to discover that the railway had arrived, and treated this is a new act of vandalism in the decaying, ancient city. The term “industrial revolution” is a succinct catchphrase to describe a historical period, starting in 18 th-century Great Britain, where the pace of change appeared to speed up. Popular among the wealthy capitalists was the view that the machine, as a triumph of man’s intelligence, was a symbol of benign hope and rich achievement. Businessmen would have been excited with the increase in productivity that innovative machines made possible. The construction of railway lines: 1. Findings such as these started to erode the idea that all things on earth were made for the express purpose of man. As W. Cooke Taylor wrote in his 1842 Notes of a Tour in the Manufacturing District of Lancashire: “The steam-engine had no precedent, the spinning-jenny is without ancestry, the mule and the power-loom entered under prepared heritage: they sprang into sudden existence like Minerva from the brain of Jupiter.” (p. 21, Newsome). Opportunities for travel broadened as the working class could now travel further and more freely, although some conservatives worried this would cause a revolt. Here he inserts 19 lines of an MS poem that revel in the beauty of a particular pass in the Alps as the poet saw it. The image. The audience is fascinated not with the machine in its entirety but the labeled parts; the artist concentrates not on the utility of the whole but of the anatomy of the components. To every member of th’harmonious frame Godwin address this issue by claiming that not only would the coaches not be out of work, but that, demand for coaches may even increase. These lines were built with the exclusive purpose of conveying commodities. Stephenson’s enthusiasm for the improvement of technology and the potentials he saw were not always received quickly. He said that their trips would be shorter and more frequent to and from the railway stations. “The Rocket” was the first of the steam powered trains and marked the beginning of the growth of industry. In 1700, roads were poorly maintained, so the easiest way to transport things was by water. While Merchant believes that science was the downfall of nature, Thomas seems to think that it actually breathed new life into the old organic view, which had been smothered by anthropocentric interpretations of the Bible and other theological beliefs. Like the coal-road, the Stockton and Darlington, they ran primarily between industrial centers and areas of natural resources. Jackman, a rail historian explains the mindset of investors in this time, “Men were induced to believe that they had only to embark in one of these schemes to ensure themselves a life of affluence and ease” (532). Rushed upon the paper scrip; their eager eyes With the advent of new technological advances like the invention of the train, there was a shift over time from glamorizing the train to the train becoming a mundane part of everyday life. (11). New companies formed to both run railways and take advantage of the possibilities, and a major new employer was created. Due to the surplus of bills, plans for potential railways, that were put before parliament many were never heard. Their witnessing man’s seemingly limitless abilities would definitely bring a feeling of awe and an element of prestige. Internet. . Godwin lists the advantages of the railway in a systematic order. Map ii in Appendix I, in combination with Table 1, (which follows below) shows incidences of English railway opposition that attracted public attention, and illustrates the correspondence between geographical location, population density, and success of opposition movements. Essentially he is expounding upon his original conception that an appreciation for nature is an acquired taste and it would be futile to bring the lower classes in because they would not have a developed context with which to compare the richness of the Lake District. But it’s also impossible to exaggerate the social impact. The carriage driver in the background has turned his head to examine the train and even his horse has pricked up his ears and turned to gaze upon it. In 1821 Stephenson built the Stockton to Darlington railway using iron rails and steam power with the aim of breaking the local monopoly of the canal owners. Carlyle took Hudson to task, naming him “railway king” and adding, “His worth, I take it, to English railroads, much more to English men, will turn out to be extremely inconsiderable; to be incalculable damage rather!” For them, the railway was yet another symbol of the country’s obsession with wealth, accumulation, and material values over moral and aesthetic concerns. That frightening Victorian behemoth, the “railway monopoly,” reared its ugly head. (148). This, again, appeals to the nationalistic appetite of the Victorian age. This is a benevolent documentation of fact. Railways. Bradshaw’s April 1910 railway guide; a new edition of the April 1910 issue of Bradshaw’s General railway and steam navigation guide for Great Britain and Ireland with enlarged type and introduction by David St John Thomas. This was most likely due to the fact that they related to his line of work. A variety of conclusions about the artist’s intentions could be drawn based on the details of the image. “The Baconian method,” says Merchant, “advocated power over nature through manual manipulation, technology, and experiment” (216). They worried that the railways would “contaminate” the bucolic rural landscapes that had come to embody middle-class dreams of “arriving,” which had inspired artists and poets as the height of natural perfection, and had nurtured generations of middle and upper class British with visions of a “green and pleasant land” as a national ideal. The importance of this has been exaggerated, as it still remained as “fast” as a canal (i.e. O’erlooks the work: the carded wool, he says, He was strongly opposed to the principles of Utilitarianism as espoused by Benthamites, and believed that nature should be appreciated for its own sake, and not as a resource to be exploited for a vastly increasing and irreverent humanity. In Adam Smith’s Moral Philosophy: Concepts of Nature and Utility, “…the political machine seem to move with more harmony and ease… We take pleasure in beholding the perfection of so beautiful and so grand a system, and we are uneasy till we remove any obstruction that can in the least disturb or encumber the regularity of its motions” (Smith, 300). Radically transformed both the rural and urban landscape 2. Such societies may have led to the development of official bodies like the National Trust, which restore, protect, and manage historical properties in Britain. What they did do was allow the revolution to continue, provide further stimulus, and help to transform the mobility and diets of the population. AUD NZD USD GBP EUR CAD WOOCS v.2.3.0 And they were indeed horrible. It carries people from the city of Paris to the surrounding suburbs, and does not carry goods like coal and iron ore. Giclee print of the steam engine used in erecting Shop Penn’s Marine Factory, Greenwich. No one had come forward to talk of the dirt, filth and destruction attributed to industry. Some took this misfortune as a portent against the “iron roads.”. Black’s picturesque tourist and road and railway guide book through England and Wales. Indeed, Stephenson was quoted as saying, “…that his ideas and anticipations of the capabilities of this mode of transit, both as to the speed and the effect which it would produce when generally adopted (as he foresaw it must ultimately), were such as he did not even dare to express, for fear of being pronounced insane” (Schwartz 2). Collins, C. J. Rails of this era were powered by stationary engines, horse labor, and sometimes by locomotives. The Stockton & Darlington Railway, 1825 (1900). The Railways in the Industrial Revolution addition to textiles, and the Turnpike Act ensured that new roads were built. Rivers like the Thames were already great for this, but most cities didn't have access to big, straight rivers. He draws a correlation between Gallileo and the introduction of the steam engine; he counsels the people not repeat ‘mistakes’ of the past (8). Industry becomes romantic and beautiful. The Projected New Railways. The steam engine is considered to be the most important invention that was invented during the Industrial Revolution this was because transport hardly happened and if it did it was only to only somewhere close so once the steam powered train was invented people could travel to further places. – He will only care less for the Ninevite ivories in the British Museum… Railroad architecture has, or would have, the dignity of its own if it were left to its work. The working class “blue machine” / Victoria & Albert Museum. Neither nature nor industry dominates the canvas, although the train is in the foreground. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1868. The 18th century saw the emergence of the ‘Industrial Revolution’, the great age of steam, canals and factories that changed the face of … Wordsworth’s Guide to the Lakes: The Fifth Edition (1835). New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1997. During the Industrial Revolution there was a genuine fascination with the reproducibility of parts. Intentionally, we are not inspired by the space. Over the work presides…(Klingender, 11). English Railways: Their Development and Their Relation to the State. due to the nature of rails, Godwin points out the advantage railways would have in quickly assembling a military force. In 1753 a trip from London to Shrewsbury would take almost 3 and a half days by coach as compared to 12 hours and 40 min by train in 1835 (Simmons 310). Proceeds are donated to charity. Ure can be seen in positive implications of industry as a nonpolluting and non intrusive. He felt that beauty in architecture stemmed from an imitation of natural form “because it is not of the power of man to conceive beauty without her aid.” (p. 96, Abse) He also believed that to ornament commercial buildings “vulgarized the forms and diminished their worth,” (p. 96, Abse) especially railway stations, which people were always rushing to escape. Unlike the first two images, in this selection, nature is no longer in coexistence with the railway system since nature has been obliterated by the destructive hands of man. The Philosophy of Manufactures: The Blessings of the Factory System. The very language of the poem recalls the grooved tracks that were spreading across Victorian Britain, reminding people that the times were changing. In 1801 Trevithic invented a steam driven locomotive which ran on roads, and 1813 William Hedly built Puffing Billy for use in mines, followed a year later by George Stephenson’s engine. In 1868, Herbert Spencer published an essay on “Railway Morals and Railway Policy” in his collection Essays: Moral, Political, and Aesthetic. 161-163, Simmons, The Victorian Railway), Apart from aesthetic and historical concerns, Ruskin was also strongly opposed to railway speculation. In some areas the ground under the tracks is darkly shaded, indicating that it is dirty. They are smiling, happy and pleased to be participating members in the support of man’s innovations. The Liverpool and Manchester line was a direct result of the Railway Fever. The effect of railways in the Industrial Revolution is often exaggerated. Alexis De Tocqueville, “Manchester” from Journeys to England and Ireland, 1835, as cited in editor Alasdair Clayre’s Nature and Industrialization, Oxford University Press, 1977, p. 117. The theme running through Merchant’s book, The Death of Nature, is one of pessimism toward science. Wordsworth’s infamous battle over the London and Northwestern’s Kendal and Windermere line was a product of the second Railway Mania. See the bottom of each page for copyright information. The changes in technology had immense influences on the way the working-class made a living. Population growth profoundly changed the nature of British society, and the mechanization of industry created a demand for larger labor force. In the image of the agricultural machine, the relationship between entrepreneur and his modern livestock concentrates not only on productivity, but the magnificence of the beast. London: Oxford University Press, 1970. Gare Saint-Lazare, by Claude Monet, 1877 / The Art Institute of Chicago. In  1844, the proposed Kendal and Windermere rail line threatened to violate William Wordsworth’s precious lakes district. Railways were a symbol of change and progress. Medievalists like Ruskin and Carlyle mourned the passing of an older way of life, and the destruction of its outward remnants. is reminiscent of Dickens’ description of Coketown, it “was a town of machinery and tall chimneys, out of which interminable serpents of smoke trailed themselves for ever and ever,” and left the town “shrouded in a haze of its own which appeared impervious to the sun’s rays.”[5] In addition to the polluted sky, running through the center of this painting is a brick wall and stone railing. The proportions can be explained because industry has not yet overpowered nature, industry is still relatively small and controllable. Wordsworth then claims that he saw the same path thirty years later and due to the intrusion of a road it was no longer the pristine landscape it once was. Wordsworth, Dorothy. However, the cartoonists were quick to caricature the businessmen caught up in railway mania at the expense of public safety and well-being: “with regard to railway accidents it is ‘the pace that kills.’ This is particularly the case when companies go it too fast in the pursuit of profit.” (p. 1, Vaughon) By the 1860s Punch was waging war against railway vandalism, and was in fact among the first to use the term “vandalism” in connection with the railways. Therefore, the image most closely resembles the feelings put forth by Charleton and Ure. Andrew Ure, “The Blessings of the Factory System,” from The Philosophy of Manufactures, 1835, as cited in editor Alasdair Clayre’s Nature and Industrialization, Oxford University Press, 1977, p. 71. Internet. The Victorian Web. Although Wordsworth was not a politician of any sort he was able to gain much fame during his lifetime. Wordsworth, William. Small, scattered railway development continued, but at the same time, the steam engine was evolving. Thomas, Keith. Ed. For newly-made businessmen the prospect of ownership was as exciting as the machine itself. In the first painting we were presented with a scene that showed people standing in awe of the train and though they are welcoming it into their lives there is still a love of nature.

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