Possibly he died in Macedonia instead, after obtaining the patronage of the court there; or else he died back in Thurium. " Again, later, Herodotus claims himself as an authority: "I know this is how it happened because I heard it from the Delphians myself. In judging the reliability of Herodotus’ hotly debated source citations, Rhodes advocates a middle course between extreme skepticism and extreme credulity, in the belief that … In Herodotus's case, "Why did the Greeks and barbarians go to war with each other? In the narrative of Artemisia, however, one notices the vibrancy of her voice even more; perhaps simply because older translations have often failed to fully capture that quality. These oral histories often contained folk-tale motifs and demonstrated a moral, yet they also contained substantial facts relating to geography, anthropology, and history, all compiled by Herodotus in an entertaining style and format.. Still, certain points may be approximately fixed ... Modern accounts of his life typically go something like this: Herodotus was born at Halicarnassus around 485 BC. Mark has lived in Greece and Germany and traveled through Egypt. He described Gelonus, located in Scythia, as a city thousands of times larger than Troy; this was widely disbelieved until it was rediscovered in 1975. Boedeker concurs that much of the content of the works of Herodotus are literary devices. plus shipping.  Further, the Suda is the only source which we have for the role played by Herodotus as the heroic liberator of his birthplace. (1998). The History of Herodotus By Herodotus Written 440 B.C.E Translated by George Rawlinson. Herodotus claimed to have visited Babylon. He is widely considered to have been the first writer to have treated historical subjects using a method of systematic investigation—specifically, by collecting his materials and then critically arranging them into an historiographic narrative. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Highly recommended. In response, Dalley has proposed that the Hanging Gardens may have been in Nineveh rather than in Babylon. The Histories Herodotus TRANSLATED BY GEORGE RAWLINSON BOOK 1 THESE are the researches of Herodotus of Halicarnassus, which he publishes, in the hope of thereby preserving from decay the remembrance of what men have done, and of preventing the great and wonderful actions of the Greeks and the Barbarians from losing their due meed of glory; and withal to put on record what were their … Detlev Fehling writes of "a problem recognized by everybody", namely that Herodotus frequently cannot be taken at face value. Gould argues to the contrary that this is likely because Herodotus attempts to provide the rational reasons, as understood by his contemporaries, rather than providing more abstract reasons. The most readily available are those translated by: 5th century BC Greek historian and author of The Histories, For the past several hundred years, the title of Herodotus's work has been translated rather roughly as, “In the scheme and plan of his work, in the arrangement and order of its parts, in the tone and character of the thoughts, in ten thousand little expressions and words, the Homeric student appears.”. $11.99 . Herodotus: The Histories, translated by Robin Waterfield, is an excellent version of the famous work. Publication Date. Mark, Joshua J. Peissel reports that, in an isolated region of northern Pakistan on the Deosai Plateau in Gilgit–Baltistan province, there is a species of marmot – the Himalayan marmot, a type of burrowing squirrel – that may have been what Herodotus called giant ants. Herodotus: The History. His record of the achievements of others was an achievement in itself, though the extent of it has been debated. By purchasing books through this website, you support our non-profit organization. The idea of "it was going to happen" reveals a "tragic discovery" associated with fifth-century drama. Strassler, Robert B., (ed. , It is clear from the beginning of Book 1 of the Histories that Herodotus utilizes (or at least claims to utilize) various sources in his narrative. Herodotus would have made his researches known to the larger world through oral recitations to a public crowd. In 425 BC, which is about the time that Herodotus is thought by many scholars to have died, the Athenian comic dramatist Aristophanes created The Acharnians, in which he blames the Peloponnesian War on the abduction of some prostitutes – a mocking reference to Herodotus, who reported the Persians' account of their wars with Greece, beginning with the rapes of the mythical heroines Io, Europa, Medea, and Helen. Oxford World's Classics.  The controversy was also commented on by Aristotle, Flavius Josephus and Plutarch. The History of Herodotus has been divided into the following sections: Book I [299k] Book II [249k] Book III [221k] Book IV [230k] Book V [162k] Book VI [174k] Book VII [286k] Book VIII [179k] Book IX [168k] Download: A 1464k text-only version is available for download. A freelance writer and former part-time Professor of Philosophy at Marist College, New York, Joshua J. Herodotus expresses affection for the island of Samos (III, 39–60), and this is an indication that he might have lived there in his youth. Herodotus is neither a mere gatherer of data nor a simple teller of tales – he is both. The idea was to criticize previous arguments on a topic and emphatically and enthusiastically insert their own in order to win over the audience.  Alan B. Lloyd argues that, as a historical document, the writings of Herodotus are seriously defective, and that he was working from "inadequate sources. This mode of explanation traces itself all the way back to Homer, who opened the Iliad by asking: Both Homer and Herodotus begin with a question of causality. ISBN 13: 9780199535668. ", Herodotus's means of explanation does not necessarily posit a simple cause; rather, his explanations cover a host of potential causes and emotions. , John Gould argues that Herodotus should be understood as falling in a long line of story-tellers, rather than thinking of his means of explanation as a "philosophy of history" or "simple causality." Herodotus wasn't writing like the Homeric scribes were, so it's never going to be flowery, and attempts to make it so are the most painful to read. Hide browse bar Your current position in the text is marked in blue. ", Herodotus provides much information about the nature of the world and the status of science during his lifetime, often engaging in private speculation likewise. Such at least was the opinion of Marcellinus in his Life of Thucydides.  In spite of these lines of criticism, Herodotus' works were in general kept in high esteem and regarded as reliable by many. Ancient History Encyclopedia receives a small commission for each book sold through … Parthia, One of the Seven Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World (Illustrated) George Rawlinson. $0.99 . (trans.). According to Eusebius and Plutarch, Herodotus was granted a financial reward by the Athenian assembly in recognition of his work. "Herodotus: The Histories." Herodotus’ account demonstrated that the Persians, in their description of the Greek-Persian conflict, blamed the Greeks to have started the conflict (Herodotus and Waterfield 3). Some readers may be put off by a translation which chooses a colloquialism such as `a lot' instead of `a great deal of' or `a plethora of' but the benefit of such a translation is that it makes the ancient stories accessible to those readers who could be confused by more archaic phrasing. The Histories. " Nielsen writes: "Though we cannot entirely rule out the possibility of Herodotus having been in Egypt, it must be said that his narrative bears little witness to it. The "Wars of Liberation" had given to Herodotus the first genuinely historical inspiration felt by a Greek. Herodotus, The Histories A. D. Godley, Ed.  Herodotus claims to be better informed than his predecessors by relying on empirical observation to correct their excessive schematism. We'll publish …  Moreover, Thucydides developed a historical topic more in keeping with the Greek world-view: focused on the context of the polis or city-state. Year: 1890. Aristotle refers to a version of The Histories written by "Herodotus of Thurium," and some passages in the Histories have been interpreted as proof that he wrote about southern Italy from personal experience there (IV, 15,99; VI, 127).  There is no proof that Herodotus derived the ambitious scope of his own work, with its grand theme of civilizations in conflict, from any predecessor, despite much scholarly speculation about this in modern times. That itself is a good reason to doubt such a romantic account.. [b] Just as Homer drew extensively on a tradition of oral poetry, sung by wandering minstrels, so Herodotus appears to have drawn on an Ionian tradition of story-telling, collecting and interpreting the oral histories he chanced upon in his travels. by Robin Waterfield. However, he retains idealizing tendencies, as in his symmetrical notions of the Danube and Nile. Buy The Histories (Oxford World's Classics) New edition by Herodotus, Dewald, Carolyn, Waterfield, Robin (ISBN: 9780192824257) from Amazon's Book Store.  However, this point is one of the most contentious issues in modern scholarship. However, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, a literary critic of Augustan Rome, listed seven predecessors of Herodotus, describing their works as simple, unadorned accounts of their own and other cities and people, Greek or foreign, including popular legends, sometimes melodramatic and naïve, often charming – all traits that can be found in the work of Herodotus himself.. Herodotus has been criticized for the fact that his book includes many obvious legends and fanciful accounts. For example, Athenian tragic poets provided him with a world-view of a balance between conflicting forces, upset by the hubris of kings, and they provided his narrative with a model of episodic structure. According to the Suda, Herodotus learned the Ionian dialect as a boy living on the island of Samos, to which he had fled with his family from the oppressions of Lygdamis, tyrant of Halicarnassus and grandson of Artemisia. For example, he argues for continental asymmetry as opposed to the older theory of a perfectly circular earth with Europe and Asia/Africa equal in size (Histories 4.36 and 4.42). Arion flung himself into the water, and a dolphin carried him to shore..  Herodotus is variously considered "father of comparative anthropology," "the father of ethnography," and "more modern than any other ancient historian in his approach to the ideal of total history.". For example, he reports that the annual flooding of the Nile was said to be the result of melting snows far to the south, and he comments that he cannot understand how there can be snow in Africa, the hottest part of the known world, offering an elaborate explanation based on the way that desert winds affect the passage of the Sun over this part of the world (2:18ff). For some reason, possibly associated with local politics, he subsequently found himself unpopular in Halicarnassus, and sometime around 447 BC, migrated to Periclean Athens – a city whose people and democratic institutions he openly admires (V, 78). To this day, some scholars regard his works as being at least partly unreliable. Discoveries made since the end of the 19th century have generally added to Herodotus' credibility. It is notable, however, that "the obligations of gratitude and revenge are the fundamental human motives for Herodotus, just as ... they are the primary stimulus to the generation of narrative itself. These giant ants, according to Herodotus, would often unearth the gold dust when digging their mounds and tunnels, and the people living in this province would then collect the precious dust. The Suda also informs us that Herodotus later returned home to lead the revolt that eventually overthrew the tyrant. Boedeker comments on Herodotus's use of literary devices. Send-to-Kindle or Email . The debt may have been repaid by Sophocles because there appear to be echoes of The Histories in his plays, especially a passage in Antigone that resembles Herodotus's account of the death of Intaphernes (Histories 3.119 ~ Antigone 904–920). The father of history, as Cicero called him, and a writer possessed of remarkable narrative gifts, enormous scope, and considerable charm, Herodotus has always been beloved by readers well-versed in the classics. " To further his work on the Egyptians and Assyrians, historian and fiction writer Henry T. Aubin used Herodotus' accounts in various passages. , British egyptologist Derek A. Welsby said that "archaeology graphically confirms Herodotus's observations. $53.99 . Due to recent discoveries of inscriptions at Halicarnassus dated to about Herodotus's time, we now know that the Ionic dialect was used in Halicarnassus in some official documents, so there is no need to assume (like the Suda) that he must have learned the dialect elsewhere.  Thucydides, who had been trained in rhetoric, became the model for subsequent prose-writers as an author who seeks to appear firmly in control of his material, whereas with his frequent digressions Herodotus appeared to minimize (or possibly disguise) his authorial control. As a result, his reports about Greek events are often coloured by Athenian bias against rival states – Thebes and Corinth in particular. On account of this, he is often referred to as "The Father of History," a title first conferred on him by the first-century BC Roman orator Cicero.. As Herodotus himself reveals, Halicarnassus, though a Dorian city, had ended its close relations with its Dorian neighbours after an unseemly quarrel (I, 144), and it had helped pioneer Greek trade with Egypt (II, 178).  Herodotus's explanation that an event "was going to happen" maps well on to Aristotelean and Homeric means of expression. (Hence the proverbial expression "Herodotus and his shade" to describe someone who misses an opportunity through delay.) Author Information. With him, the spirit of history was born into Greece; and his work, called after the nine Muses, was indeed the first utterance of Clio. Ancient History Encyclopedia receives a small commission for each book sold through our affiliate partners. Calcutta: Firma KLM. Thanks for Sharing! Herodotus is not only known as the `father of history', as Cicero called him, but also the father of ethnography; as well as charting the historical background to the Persian Wars, his curiosity also prompts frequent digression on the cultures of the peoples he introduces. Herodotus observed prophetically to the boy's father, "Your son's soul yearns for knowledge.  Lucian of Samosata went as far as to deny the "father of history" a place among the famous on the Island of the Blessed in his Verae Historiae. Herodotus did not claim to have personally seen the creatures which he described. Ancient History Encyclopedia. His name is not mentioned later in the tribute list of the Athenian Delian League, indicating that there might well have been a successful uprising against him sometime before 454 BC. The epic poet Panyassis – a relative of Herodotus – is reported to have taken part in a failed uprising. " Even his own contemporaries found reason to scoff at his achievement. A sizable portion of the information he provides has since been confirmed by historians and archaeologists. Herodotus & David Grene.  While the gods never make personal appearances in his account of human events, Herodotus states emphatically that "many things prove to me that the gods take part in the affairs of man" (IX, 100). For example, in Book 1 he mentions both the Phoenician and the Persian accounts of Io. However, divine will is the reason that the house collapses at the particular moment when I am inside. Arion discovered the plot and begged for his life, but the crew gave him two options: that either he kill himself on the spot or jump ship and fend for himself in the sea. Herodotus announced the purpose and scope of his work at the beginning of his Histories:[a]. As with all of Waterfield's translations, the prose is lively, easy to read, and instantly engaging. Herodotus wrote his Histories in the Ionian dialect, yet he was born in Halicarnassus, which was a Dorian settlement. 9780226327723. I thought that reading Herodotus would be daunting, but Mr. Waterfield's translation so far is making it fun to read. Herodotus: The Histories. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Many scholars, ancient and modern (such as Strabo, A. H. L. Heeren, etc. Herodotus’ world is one of hearsay, myth, and superstition. ("Agamemnon", "Hom. It was, therefore, an outward-looking, international-minded port within the Persian Empire, and the historian's family could well have had contacts in other countries under Persian rule, facilitating his travels and his researches. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. The Histories (Oxford World's Classics) by Herodotus, translated by Robin A. H. Waterfield English | May 15, 2008 | ISBN: 0199535663 | True EPUB/PDF | 840 pages | 20.2/41.6 MB "The father of history," as Cicero called him, and a writer possessed of remarkable narrative gifts, enormous scope, and considerable charm, Herodotus has always been beloved by readers well-versed in the classics. He is known for having written the book The Histories (Greek: Ἱστορίαι Historíai), a detailed record of his "inquiry" (ἱστορία historía) on the origins of the Greco-Persian Wars. Many authors, starting with the late fifth-century BC historian Thucydides, have accused him of making up stories for entertainment. In his third part of the second … , Herodotus attributes cause to both divine and human agents. Herodotus is not only known as the `father of history', as Cicero called him, but also the father of ethnography; as well as charting the historical background to the Persian Wars, his curiosity also prompts frequent digression on the cultures of the peoples he introduces. The Histories Herodotus Carolyn Dewald, Waterfield Robin. ", Herodotus writes with the purpose of explaining; that is, he discusses the reason for or cause of an event. These portions of the research seem independent and "almost detachable," so that they might have been set aside by the author for the purposes of an oral performance. (2014, March 12). You submitted the following rating and review. Author. Buy The Histories (Oxford World's Classics) Illustrated by Herodotus, Dewald, Carolyn, Waterfield, Robin (ISBN: 9780199535668) from Amazon's Book Store. , However, a recent discovery of a baris (described in The Histories) during an excavation of the sunken Egyptian port city of Thonis-Heracleion lends credence to Herodotus's travels and storytelling.  Similarly, in a Corinthian Oration, Dio Chrysostom (or yet another pseudonymous author) accused the historian of prejudice against Corinth, sourcing it in personal bitterness over financial disappointments – an account also given by Marcellinus in his Life of Thucydides. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. 300 km. According to Lucian, Herodotus took his finished work straight from Anatolia to the Olympic Games and read the entire Histories to the assembled spectators in one sitting, receiving rapturous applause at the end of it. Herodotus., Dewald, Carolyn, Waterfield, Robin. The purpose is to prevent the traces of human events from being erased by time, and to preserve the fame of the important and remarkable achievements produced by both Greeks and non-Greeks; among the matters covered is, in particular, the cause of the hostilities between Greeks and non-Greeks. Herodotus is a gossip, not a journalist or historian. While Herodotus is certainly concerned with giving accurate accounts of events, this does not preclude for him the insertion of powerful mythological elements into his narrative, elements which will aid him in expressing the truth of matters under his study. Web. Click anywhere in the line to jump to another position: book: book 1 book 2 book 3 book 4 book 5 book 6 book 7 book 8 book 9. Peissel offers the theory that Herodotus may have confused the old Persian word for "marmot" with the word for "mountain ant." However, Herodotus states that he is merely reporting what he has seen and been told, on several occasions saying that he does not himself believe the story that he reports. Du Bois, Pierre Montet, Martin Bernal, Basil Davidson, Derek A. Welsby, Henry T. Aubin). Herodotus's eyewitness accounts indicate that he traveled in Egypt in association with Athenians, probably sometime after 454 BC or possibly earlier, after an Athenian fleet had assisted the uprising against Persian rule in 460–454 BC. , Yet it was in Athens where his most formidable contemporary critics could be found. He lays this out in the preamble: "This is the publication of the research of Herodotus of Halicarnassus, so that the actions of people shall not fade with time, so that the great and admirable achievements of both Greeks and barbarians shall not go unrenowned, and, among other things, to set forth the reasons why they waged war on each other.". Herodotus prefaces the story by noting that "a very wonderful thing is said to have happened," and alleges its veracity by adding that the "Corinthians and the Lesbians agree in their account of the matter." Of these, only fragments of Hecataeus's works survived, and the authenticity of these is debatable, but they provide a glimpse into the kind of tradition within which Herodotus wrote his own Histories. These wars showed him that there was a corporate life, higher than that of the city, of which the story might be told; and they offered to him as a subject the drama of the collision between East and West. " As such, certain passages have been the subject of controversy and even some doubt, both in antiquity and today. His work is the earliest Greek prose to have survived intact. Majumdar, R.C. Are his facts right? University of Chicago Press. and Dewald, Carolyn (ed.). Persian and Egyptian informants tell stories that dovetail neatly into Greek myths and literature, yet show no signs of knowing their own traditions. Herodotus: The Histories, translated by Robin Waterfield, is an excellent version of the famous work. Categories: Fiction.  The Alexandrian grammarian Harpocration wrote a whole book on "the lies of Herodotus".  For Fehling, the sources of many stories, as reported by Herodotus, do not appear credible in themselves. Herodotus, the 'father of history', was born about 485 BCE in the city of Halicarnassus in Asia Minor. ... Robin Waterfield is a distinguished translator whose version of Plato's Republic has been described as `the best available'. Title. Buy This Book. , It was conventional in Herodotus's day for authors to "publish" their works by reciting them at popular festivals. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri.  Cicero (On the Laws I.5) said that his works were full of legends or "fables". Modern scholars generally turn to Herodotus's own writing for reliable information about his life, supplemented with ancient yet much later sources, such as the Byzantine Suda, an 11th-century encyclopedia which possibly took its information from traditional accounts. Please login to your account first; Need help? ", Some readers of Herodotus believe that his habit of tying events back to personal motives signifies an inability to see broader and more abstract reasons for action. The Classical accounts of India: Being a compilation of the English translations of the accounts left by Herodotus, Megasthenes, Arrian, Strabo, Quintus, Diodorus, Siculus, Justin, Plutarch, Frontinus, Nearchus, Apollonius, Pliny, Ptolemy, Aelian, and others with maps. Publisher. Inscriptions recently discovered at Halicarnassus indicate that her grandson Lygdamis negotiated with a local assembly to settle disputes over seized property, which is consistent with a tyrant under pressure. He accounted for the misspelled stories that the Persians have woven to show that the conflict was a conduct of the Greeks and Phoenicians first committed offensive acts against the Persians to which … Despite Herodotus's historical significance, little is known about his personal life. Herodotus claims to have traveled extensively around the ancient world, conducting interviews and collecting stories for his book, almost all of which covers territories of the Persian Empire. Herodotus's place in history and his significance may be understood according to the traditions within which he worked. but rather "why did this happen to me?" The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. The archaeological study of the now-submerged ancient Egyptian city of Heracleion and the recovery of the so-called "Naucratis stela" give credibility to Herodotus's previously unsupported claim that Heracleion was founded during the Egyptian New Kingdom. , His debt to previous authors of prose "histories" might be questionable, but there is no doubt that Herodotus owed much to the example and inspiration of poets and story-tellers. With lucid prose, Herodotus’s account of the rise of the Persian Empire and its dramatic war with the Greek … Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/review/52/. After journeys to India and Pakistan, French ethnologist Michel Peissel claimed to have discovered an animal species that may illuminate one of the most bizarre passages in the Histories. (1981). … For Aubin, Herodotus was "the author of the first important narrative history of the world. He also passes on reports from Phoenician sailors that, while circumnavigating Africa, they "saw the sun on the right side while sailing westwards", although, being unaware of the existence of the southern hemisphere, he says that he does not believe the claim. A. H. L. Heeren quoted Herodotus throughout his work and provided corroboration by scholars regarding several passages (source of the Nile, location of Meroë, etc.). Herodotus (/ h ɪ ˈ r ɒ d ə t ə s /; Ancient Greek: Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, Attic Greek pronunciation: [hɛː.ró.do.tos]; c. 484 – c. 425 BC) was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey).He is known for having written the book The Histories (Greek: Ἱστορίαι Historíai), a detailed record of his "inquiry" (ἱστορία historía) on the origins of the Greco … , Homer was another inspirational source. However, one modern scholar has described the work of Hecataeus as "a curious false start to history," since despite his critical spirit, he failed to liberate history from myth. Herodotus (/hɪˈrɒdətəs/; Ancient Greek: Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, Attic Greek pronunciation: [hɛː.ró.do.tos]; c. 484 – c. 425 BC) was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey). Herodotus: The History (Book) Book Details.  Martin Bernal has relied on Herodotus "to an extraordinary degree" in his controversial book Black Athena. All images are from Wikipedia. The ground of the Deosai Plateau is rich in gold dust, much like the province that Herodotus describes. For those interested in reading the famous account of Artemisia I of Caria, and her role in Xerxes expedition to conquer Greece, this translation will truly be a delight. He has taught history, writing, literature, and philosophy at the college level. https://www.ancient.eu/review/52/. 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Waterstones or get free UK delivery on eligible orders this website, you support our organization... 42 ] Cicero ( on the Laws I.5 ) said that his book includes many obvious and. Actions of people thinking in general, at least from Homer onward any personal - public... Is possible that Herodotus `` always distinguishes carefully between what he has been criticized for the fact that his includes... How to send a book to Kindle 42 ] Cicero ( on the Laws I.5 said! Voice comes across clearly in the city of Halicarnassus in Asia Minor across clearly the! Prose is very accessible, herodotus the histories waterfield makes this history very intriguing and to... Divine will is the human cause for a house collapsing work has attracted further on. Help of an Athenian-sponsored colony inquiry carried out by Herodotus of Halicarnassus Histories provide a snapshot of inquiry! Of Missouri he talks to herodotus the histories waterfield reader the way a hairdresser talks to his favorite client Homer was inspirational... How to send a book to Kindle and emphatically and enthusiastically insert their own.! The gold mining section of his Histories: [ a ] Herodotus ' voice - his! Herodotus at times relates various accounts of the ancient Eastern world ( Illustrated ) George Rawlinson the of! To scoff at his achievement frequently can not be taken at face value these sources, and a dolphin him! Interred in Thucydides ' tomb in Athens and Germany and traveled through Egypt A. L...., `` Why did this happen to me? of Herodotus has been debated, Carolyn, Waterfield Robin... The wrong-doing against the Greeks only by local or family traditions his work at the court ;... Hanging Gardens may have been in Nineveh rather than in Babylon genuinely historical inspiration felt by a Greek in! And Nile it has been debated researches known to the traditions within which he worked since been confirmed by and. Out the man who I know for a house collapsing Foundation is a gossip not... Philosophy at the particular moment when I am inside able translator, he migrated to as... With each other myths or legends ) produces a valid kind of understanding, Even when this is! Collections/Texts Perseus Catalog Research Grants Open Source about help history ', was born in Halicarnassus, makes! [ 12 ] however, he migrated to Thurium as part of an Athenian-sponsored colony archaeology confirms! The reason that the house collapses at the University of Southern California Herodotus, do not credible.