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wetland is impermeable or semi-impermeable to water. The soil salinity ranges from 0.1 to 5.0 psu, the soil pH ranges from 8.2 to 9.2, and the soil C and nutrient contents are relatively poor. Mangrove soils, however, are neutral to slightly acidic due to the sulphur-reducing bacteria, and … Extreme readings in either direction are usually undesirable. This type of soil … Soil pH is one of several common soil problems in our area. Swamp soil can sustain trees and other large plants. Soil pH is a measure of how acidic or basic a soil is and can range anywhere from 3.0 (very acidic) to over 8.0 (moderately basic) in our region. Dense, heavy clay soils are a common challenge in gardens and frequently found in low-lying areas. Liming tropical and subtropical acidic soils usually results in an increase in their capacity to hold nutrients. Soils with a pH level that is higher than 7 are said to be "alkaline." What is the most likely reason for this difference? pH Requirements. Most wetlands are covered with water for less than a month during the summer. Laboratory testing is required to obtain an accurate pH value. Fortunately in North Carolina there is an easy and free way to determine your soil pH and get recommendations for how to adjust it, through our State’s soil testing lab in Raleigh. Conway (1949) and Lindeman (1941) have also worked in the area. This can be seen by comparing the charts displaying pH, dissolved oxygen, and water table pulsing. This one is pretty easy to grow – make sure the soil is moist or wet, and plant it in full sun for best results, but it can tolerate part-sun – then stand back and watch it grow. Archer River Swamp . Lime and sulfur, both natural products, are used to adjust soil pH. Marshes are defined as wetlands frequently or continually inundated with water, characterized by emergent soft-stemmed vegetation adapted to saturated soil conditions. Fish grow between 6.5 and 9, and would prefer slightly alkaline water, close to neutral pH (Fig. Page 2 of 43. How satisfied are you with your experience today? Melaleuca . Come early to shop at the Master Gardener Plant Sale, which begins at 8:30 a.m. and finishes at noon. Fertilisers such as crushed sulfur and some ammonium-based nitrogen fertilisers lower pH and make soil more acid. Soil quality parameters measured include soil pH, electrical conductivity, and order classificationfor three depths within the soil profile. These processes tend to cause a lowering of pH (increase in acidity) over time. For general enquiries, feedback, complaints and compliments: Help us improve the content on our website or tell us what is working really well. This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Try the Pender County Center Staff Directory, or the Full Directory for N.C. All wetlands exist on a substrate of soil, and most have water sources that are affected by movement through adjacent soils. ... hammocks, or dry-land protrusions, covered by aquatic vegetation, or vegetation that tolerates periodic inundation or soil saturation. The pH of a soil is controlled by the relative amounts of acidic (H and Al3) versus nonacidic (Ca2, Mg2, K , Na ) elements retained within the cation exchange capacity of a soil. Because hydrogen ion concentration varies over a wide range, a logarithmic scale (pH) is used: for a pH decrease of 1, the acidity increases by a factor of 10. The differences existing between a fibrous mud from aRhizophora mangrove swamp and a non-fibrous mud from a nearbyAvicennia swamp have been examined. Growth in alkaline soils (with pH above 7.2) may cause iron chlorosis. To lower soil pH from 8.0 to 6.5, till two to three pounds of elemental sulfur into the soil … Lime is used to raise soil pH, but should only be applied if your soil test report indicates it is needed. and negative correlation of ECEC with soil pH between 5.47 in the top soil and 5.61 in the subsoil with r = - 0.286 in plantation 2. Field moist soils were moderately acidic with pH ranging from 5.3 to 6.8. Soil temperature at the 50-cm depth never dropped below 5° C, indicating a year-round biological activity season. Creek, Black Swamp and Goolwa Channel, South Australia . Extension Agent, Agriculture - Horticulture & Local Foods, N.C. The Archer River swamp is located . This is a benefit that is not often realised. When excess nitrogen and other chemicals wash into swamps, plants there absorb and use the chemicals. dominated by . Burgaw, NC 28425 The swamp is a closed depression . The amount of lime or dolomite required to correct an acidic pH will vary from soil to soil. In very acidic soils, where the pH is below 5.0, plants will be stunted and more prone to root diseases. The site may not look or function as expected. Regular updates on what to do and plant in your vegetable and herb garden! In the boreal regions of Canada, the word swamp is colloquially used for what is more correctly termed a bog, fen, or muskeg. Across all soils, for every tonne of lime added per hectare, soil pH increased from 0.1 to 0.8 pH units. Privacy Policy and If no one is in the office call Mark Seitz at 910-604-4287 if you need help. Soil pH Oxygen Nutrients Winds and currents Light, temperature, humidity Tides Salinity Biotic components Vegetation Zonation: Clayey-type topsoil Sungai Mandai Besar mangroves. To learn more about soil problems and how to diagnose and fix them, attend “Growing Healthy Soils”, a free class offered at the Pender Extension Office, 801 S. Walker St. in Burgaw, Saturday, April 21, from 10 a.m. to noon. All were aerobic, Gram-positive, aerobic, mesophilic, non-motile actinomycete. The soil in the area is classified as coastal saline-sodic sandy loam soil, with estuarine sediment as the parent material. wetland soil lacustrine - 12'' on foot - toe. Cooperative Extension has offices in every county, Family & Consumer Sciences in Pender County, Donate to Pender County Extension Programs…, Environmental Education – Southeastern NC, //, //, //,,,,, Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Liming Your Lawn (Or Almost), Mountain Horticultural Crops Research & Extension Center, Vernon G. James Research & Extension Center, Entomology – Insect Biology and Management, Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center, Weed Management in Nurseries, Landscapes & Christmas Trees. The swamp white oak is a great choice for a shade or street tree, with the ability to grow at a moderate pace and live more than 300 years. Saltwater swamps and tidal salt marshes help anchor coastal soil and sand. Most of the swamps in the Upper Peninsula and Pictured Rocks are conifer swamps, dominated by northern white cedar, black spruce, and tamarack, although balsam fir, eastern hemlock, and white pine may also be important components. The development of strongly acidic soils (less than 5.5 pH) can result in poor plant growth as a result of one or more of the following factors: Alkaline soils may have problems with deficiencies of nutrients such as zinc, copper, boron and manganese. In the same study mentioned above using reference wetlands to assess the soil of created wetlands, it was found that the mean pH of created wetlands was 5.9, and the mean pH in reference wetlands was 5.3 (Stolt et al. This is most obvious near mining areas, but the effect can also occur naturally. less than 6.5—acidic, and soils with pH less than 5.5 are considered strongly acidic. From a fosmid library of approx-imately 15,000 clones, six independent clones were found to possess lipolytic activity at acidic pH. Soils with high organic matter and clay content will be more resistant to changes in pH and will require larger application rates. Send Explanation. Do you know the pH of your soil? However, most mineral nutrients are readily available to plants when soil pH is near neutral. Raven CSIRO Land and Water Science Report 26/09 June 2009 Prepared for Murray … The problem is most common in soils with high pH (7.5 or higher), and it commonly is associated with the presence of lime (CaCO 3) in the soil, or where soil compaction or poor drainage are problems.. Michigan DNR photo. What made it so helpful? The change of several soil nutrients in tidal swamp area due to addition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) on soil media. These processes tend to cause a lowering of pH (increase in acidity) over time. n general, a sandy soil has a higher bulk density i and a lower porosity than a clayey soil. Study Area. Many of these chemicals come from human activities such as agriculture, where fertilizers use … Wetland functions are predominantly dependent on exten-sive interactions between water and wetland soils. These factors are considered to be parts of a swamp that are non-living. 801 S Walker St Because of the slow self-pruning habit of swamp Soils with an extremely alkaline pH (greater than 9) are likely to have high levels of sodium. The acidity of the surrounding environment can also affect the pH of water. Soil characteristics were also significantly different between the peat swamp forest and both types of oil palm plantations with lower soil pH, soil and ground cover vegetation surface temperatures and greater soil moisture in the peat swamp forest. 2 Swamp Milkweed tolerates clay soils. It is relatively resistant to oak wilt but may be affected by "oak decline;" anthracnose may sometimes be a problem. For other counties, find your local Extension office. soil scientist, wetland soil testing, wetlands Planning a new building project is exciting, whether it’s for an existing property or a parcel of land that you just purchased. approximately 70 km north of Coen along the Peninsula Development Road, Northern Queensland. Having the correct pH is important for healthy plant growth. Soil test kits can be purchased at garden centers or online, but they do not provide accurate results or tell you how to change your soil’s pH. However, regardless of the situation, many people think that the town map is enough when determining if a wetland exists and its boundaries. Many factors affect the amount of lime needed to change soil pH. SÜRMEN et al. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. soil’s resistivity, a knowledge of the soil’s pH, a measure of the soil’s acidity or alkalinity also becomes necessary in earthing system design. To send samples to the soil testing lab, bring them to your local Cooperative Extension office. Soil Indicators of Queensland Wetlands. The pH scale commonly in use ranges from 0 to 14, increasing with rising alkalinity and decreasing with rising acidity. Mangrove swamps are a type of shrub swamp dominated by mangroves that covers vast expanses of southern Florida. FAX: (910) 259-1291, We have several topic based e-mail newsletters that are sent out periodically when we have new information to share. While most wetlands are acclimated to the minerals in the surrounding soil, human development, mining, construction and industrial operations can put different minerals into the soil … Wetland soils differ from bottom sediments, however, in that they are usually heavily vegetated and often are in contact with the atmosphere, thus facilitating the direct release to the atmosphere of greenhouse gases such as methane and carbon … There are many different kinds of marshes, ranging from the prairie potholes to the Everglades, coastal to inland, freshwater to saltwater. Most trees, shrubs, vegetables and flowers are happiest when the pH is slightly acidic, ranging between 5.5 and 6.5, but there are exceptions. Hydric soils are those soils Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. Swamp Swamps are forested wetlands, characterized by specific types of trees and soil types. A swamp is a forested wetland. The soil is often water logged for much of the year and covered at times by as much as a few feet of water because this type of swamp is found along slow moving streams and in floodplains. The larger pH increases were obtained on sandy soils with low organic matter content. However, these small pH increases are often enough to result in an increased yield. approximately 70 km north of Coen along the Peninsula Development Road, Northern Queensland. Acid runoff depletes the water’s alkalinity and lowers pH below optimum levels. According to the USDA fact sheet Asclepias incarnata, Swamp Milkweed tolerates heavy clay soils. If soil test results show that your soil has a high pH, you can temporarily lower it by adding elemental sulfur, but this must be done very carefully to avoid damaging plants. Some fertilisers can change soil pH and increase or reduce the amount of nutrients available to plants. It’s a fast grower, so pretty soon you’ll have blooms standing as tall as 8 feet. The second characteristic of wetlands is hydric soil. Swamp white oak is susceptible to various insect pests, fungi, cankers, and wilts but none are serious. Swamp white oak is susceptible to various insect pests, fungi, cankers, and wilts but none are serious. Pender County Center At high pH values ( 7.5), the availability of phosphorus, iron, man-ganese, copper, and zinc is limited. The relationships between vegetation and acid properties of soils from a mangrove swamp in southeastern Nigeria were examined. Common acid lovers include azaleas, gardenias, dogwoods, camellias, centipedegrass, loropetalum, and blueberries. Soil pH problems are common in our area, often causing poor plant growth, pale or discolored leaves, and wasted fertilizer applications. Nutrient disorders like blossom end rot, a common problem in tomatoes, squash, peppers, and watermelons, are also more prevalent in acidic soils. To lower soil pH from 8.0 to 6.5, till two to three pounds of elemental sulfur into the soil for every 100 square feet of area before planting. 2000). This study area is an example of a In general, the local’s knowledge about peat swamp is still low (26.98%), most of them (73.02%) do not know the existence of peat swamp forest. Minerals that exist in the soil surrounding the wetlands, such as salt, can affect the pH of wetlands. Fitzpatrick, G. Grealish, P. Shand, S.L. Air dry pH ranged from 2.9 to 4.9 indicating strong acidity; the values increased with profile depth and were related to decreasing fibrous root content. Most grasses and legumes prefer soils with a pH of 4.5-7.0, so the slight acidity of rain can benefit carbonate soils ²³. The same thing that connects it to every corner of North Carolina: NC State Extension. Some of the more sensitive tree species include silver maple, Freeman (hybrid) maples, Amur maple, river birch, swamp white oak and eastern white pine (Table 1). The Archer River swamp is located . Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), disability, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, and veteran status. Acer rubrum - Red Maple or Swamp Maple (Aceraceae) -----Acer rubrum is a common shade and autumn accent tree in Eastern North America. distribution of a soil. Vegetation found at each site typically corresponded to the wetland type. However, some laboratories may use different testing methods, so professional advice should be sought when interpreting test results and planning management strategies. Like sulfur, lime needs to be tilled into the soil to work and takes several months to change soil pH. Before planting the butterfly bush, you can conduct a soil test to determine the pH level of the soil. t he bulk density is the mass of dry soil per total volume of soil in units of g/cm 3 (see e quation 2.1), and it is inversely related to the total porosity (see equa-tion 2.2), which is the volume of pores per total volume of soil. pH Following flooding, pH of soils changes as well, stabilizes around 6.7-7.2 When acid soil is flooded, its pH usually increases When alkaline soil is flooded, its pH usually decreases The increase in pH of acid soils is due mainly to reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ with corresponding consumptions of H+ … Therefore soil pH, while indicating the need for lime, is not a reliable guide as to how much lime is required. The definition of a hydric soil is a soil that formed under conditions of saturation, flooding or ponding long enough during the growing season to develop anaerobic conditions in the upper part. Wakanui soils on swamp margins and into Waimairi peat soils in low areas where water tables are highest. Soil organic matter (SOM) in par-ticular is a key property of … Food Gardener Research has demonstrated that some agricultural practices significantly alter soil pH. pH Dissolved calcium of shells and offshore coral make brackish waters alkaline. The differences found between the muds are due largely to the kind of mangrove they support. Please use our complaints and compliments form. What we see on the surface is topsoil, and are loosely recognised as sandy or clayey types. The abiotic factors in a swamp are air, temperature, soil, rocks, water and plant litter. Typical commercial application rates of around 2 tonnes of lime per hectare are therefore likely to increase the pH by only about 0.5 of a pH unit. Open Mon-Fri: 8A-5P Inexpensive and easy-to-use field kits are available to measure soil pH—these provide only an approximate soil pH value. The movement of water through the soil medium, the ability of the soil to store surface and/or groundwater, and the ability of the soil to perform bio-geochemical processes is critical to wetland function. formed in a granodiorite landscape. Depth of sampling was 10 cm in the aquatic sedi- ments and most swamp peats, but it was less in some swamp hummocks matted with tree roots and in the organic horizons of the woodland soils, which were about 3-7 cm thick and usually quite distinct from the mineral soil beneath. Pender Gardener If you have questions about gardening contact your local Cooperative Extension office: Visit the Pender Gardener blog to stay up to date with all the latest gardening news, Nutrients are plenti… This wetland supports a large diversity of plant species. Operated by the NC Department of Agriculture, North Carolina’s soil testing lab is one of the largest and busiest in the country. Swamps are forested wetlands, characterized by specific types of trees and soil types. (910) 259-1235 A pH value is actually a measure of hydrogen ion concentration. They are, therefore, useful for soils with problems caused by high pH. Simpson, R.H. Merry and M.D. Working hand-in-hand with our partners at N.C. A&T and 101 local governments, we conduct groundbreaking research that addresses real-world issues in communities across the state. N.C. Written by: Charlotte Glen, Horticulture Agent. For each area you would like to sample you will need at least a cup of soil. Aerial mycelium was absent. Soils can be naturally acid or alkaline, and this can be measured by testing their pH value. And it’s the only one that still analyzes samples for free (for NC residents only). La Extensión Cooperativa de Carolina del Norte se asocia con las comunidades para ofrecer educación y tecnología que enriquecen la vida de los habitantes, la tierra y la economía de Carolina del Norte. Measuring soil pH can be done with pH strips; see how to properly conduct this test with this video. The only accurate way to know how much you should apply is by soil testing. 13). Water, from either a temporary or permanent source, collects above the impermeable layer, eventually resulting in the formation of a wetland (Figure 1). But it grows just as well in an urban or suburban setting, with tolerance to compacted soil and (perhaps surprisingly) drought. One of the most essential criteria for identifying an area as wetlands is the presence of hydric soil. low levels of essential plant nutrients such as phosphorus and molybdenum. The correct balance is where the soil pH is between 5.5 and 7.5, so every effort should be taken to check soil pH levels regularly. of peat swamp forest soils in Narathiwat, Pattaloong and Yala provinces, Thailand (Table 1). All types receive most of their water from surface water, and many marshes are also fed by groundwater. Use tab and cursor keys to move around the page (more information), Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The two main types of swamp are "true" or swamp forests and "transitional" or shrub swamps. How to Grow Swamp Mallow. A soil pH of 4 was used, based on mean standing water pH in the nine cypress swamps. / Turk J Bot 884 an 86-ha area that is classified as a unique and endangered world-class alluvial ecosystem (Kutbay, 2001) and is located around Tekkeköy. It will take a couple of months of warm, wet weather for the sulfur to change the soil pH, and the effects will only last a couple of years. North Carolina Cooperative Extension partners with communities to deliver education and technology that enrich the lives, land and economy of North Carolinians. It is mostly clayey, rich in organic matter and neutral reaction. Some nutrients are more available under acid conditions while others are more available under alkaline conditions. Soil Indicators of Queensland Wetlands. (Optional) Soil pH affects the amount of nutrients and chemicals that are soluble in soil water, and therefore the amount of nutrients available to plants. We determined the relative abundance of major phylogenetic groups of bacteria present and basic soil chemistry at nine sites in the North Carolina (NC) coastal plain (pH 3.5–6.0) and four sites in the Florida Everglades along a well-studied nutrient enrichment gradient (pH 6.5–7.4, soil P concentrations ranging from 1,800 −1 to 350 −1). Most soils have pH values between 3.5 and 10. Microscale variability differentiated hummocks supporting live or cut palms from surrounding hollows. You will usually find them anywhere water accumulates at a rate faster than it drains away. Being aware of the long-term effects of different soil management practices on soil pH is also important. Subscribe By Email chevron_right. Dolph (less wetland soil) Cr = clay loamy residuum. Wai ‘ale‘ale on Kaua ‘i, but they are most extensive on Hawai ‘i (Table 1) where they cover large areas south of Hilo and throughout the Ka‘ü and Kona Districts (p. 6). Typical, or Sphagnum, bogs are highly acid with a pH (index of acidity–alkalinity) of less than five (seven being neutral) and are associated with waters containing no more minerals than are contained in rainwater, often the only source of water for a bog. At levels higher or lower than this, several important nutrients become unavailable to plants, even if they are present in the soil. A wetland is a distinct ecosystem that is flooded by water, either permanently or seasonally, where oxygen-free processes prevail. The pH of the water in the Great Dismal Swamp is fairly consistent throughout the year ranging on the average between 3.5 to 4.0 mg/L. Key words: Soil pH, soil nitrogen, swamp forests, tolerance values Received: 21.11.2013 Accepted: 01.04.2014 Published Online: 15.08.2014 Printed: 12.09.2014 Research Article. When the pH is too high, the new leaves of these plants appear pale or yellow and they grow poorly. Most plants grow best when the pH is between 5.5 and 6.5. all 12 orders can have wetland soil ... •pH (optimum at 6-8 for bacteria and 4-6 for fungi) •Availability of other terminal electron acceptors (review) The lighter-coloured sandy topsoils are porous and facilitate water percolation and aeration during low tide. Top of Page Soil bacteria regulate wetland biogeochemical processes, yet little is known about controls over their distribution and abundance. A wetland is simply any area where water covers the soil or keeps it saturated for at least two or three weeks during the growing season. They have formed on recent lava flows where organic matter from decaying vegetation has accumulated. The pH of the soil samples ranged from 3.39-6.37. Deer find it repugnant and avoid eating milkweeds. WETLAND SOIL Water Soil [drained] Soil Soil Oxygen Oxygen Oxygen 6/22/2008 WBL 11 [saturated] [saturated] Soil Flooded Drained [saturated] Biogeochemical ... PH 3 H 2 2 PO 4 3-O. Samples can be submitted any time of the year and results are posted online, usually within three to six weeks. The drainage of the resulted pyrite then results in oxidation to ferric hydroxide and sulfuric acid, causing extreme acidity (pH < 2). This acidic water is affected somewhat from extreme periods of precipitation which raises the pH level making the water closer to being neutral (7.0). Soil pH values were generally between 6 and 8, and they dropped 1 pH unit upon an oxidation event, which was reversible. Soil pH is the measure of the sourness or sweetness of a patch of ground. Water depth, water temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen were measured at the soil–water interface at the deepest point of each swamp. A small decrease in pH resulting from the introduction of acidic materials significantly decreased CH 4 production. The optimum pH of CH 4 production was near neutrality. Bacteria in North Carolina swamps and bogs differ greatly from Florida Everglades fens, where communities studied were unexpectedly similar along a nutrient enrichment gradient. The swamp is a closed depression . The ideal pH range for your soil will depend on what you are trying to grow. CSIRO Land and Water Science Report series ISSN: 1834-6618 Acid Sulfate Soil Assessment in Finniss River, Currency Creek, Black Swamp and Goolwa Channel, South Australia R.W. The soil pH in natural wetland is also lower than the pH found in created wetlands. Natural soil pH depends on the rock from which the soil was formed (parent material) and the weathering processes that acted on it—for example climate, vegetation, topography and time. Some agricultural activities can also accelerate the acidification process. In higher rainfall areas the natural pH of soils typically ranges from 5 to 7, while in drier areas the range is 6.5 to 9. The Extension office is open 8 AM to 5 PM with limited staff. If the soil parent materials are low in nonacidic cations, Acid loving plants prefer the pH to fall from 5.0 to 5.5. This study area is an example of a coastal and sub-coastal non-floodplain . It is relatively resistant to oak wilt but may be affected by "oak decline;" anthracnose may sometimes be a problem. If your soil pH is very high, over 8.0, it is probably unrealistic to grow acid loving plants. Common WI wetland soil. 11 Sequential Reduction of Electron Acceptors Organic Substrate [e-donor] r … Therefore, at high (alkaline) pH values, the hydrogen ion concentration is low. To find out more, contact the Pender Extension Office by calling 910-259-1235. If soil test results show that your soil has a high pH, you can temporarily lower it by adding elemental sulfur, but this must be done very carefully to avoid damaging plants. The most common change was an increase of 0.2 to 0.3 pH units. Northern white cedar swamp in the Upper Peninsula . Soil analysis results showed that the average pH is 4.04 (acidic), organic C is 16.39% (high), total N is 1.12% (very high), and C/N ratio is 14.69(moderate). formed in a granodiorite landscape. We evaluated the spatiotemporal variability of soil N 2 O and CH 4 fluxes and environmental controls along a palm swamp degradation gradient formed by one undegraded site (Intact), one moderately degraded site (mDeg) and one heavily degraded site (hDeg). You find that the CEC of a sandy loam soil at pH 5.0 is 8 cmolc/kg and at pH 8.2 it is 14 cmolc/kg. Wetlands dominated by grasses, cattails, and similar herbaceous vegetation are referred to as marshes, while wo… It appears you don't have javascript enabled. Wetland Soil. Dissolved oxygen and water temperature were measured using a YSI model 50B dissolved oxygen meter. In addition, pH levels outside of 6.5-9.5 can damage and corrode pipes and … Under low pH condition, the physiological characters of some swamp rice cultivars were better than that under pH 6.8. Some agricultural activities can also accelerate the acidification process. pH, as well known, is the negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration within the pH range of O to 14. Looking for a specific person? Because of the slow self-pruning habit of swamp What separates NC State University from other schools? There is a good chance it is either too high or too low. This study however revealed that the Fresh Water Swamp soil nutrient status can be improved for Raphia hookeri cultivation by appropriate soil organic matter management as well as enhanced sand and silt weathering. from peat-swamp forest soil obtained from Narathiwat Province, Thailand. Hydric soils are saturated or flooded for a long enough period that an aerobic, or oxygen-less, environment is created. Archer River Swamp . Regular updates on what to do and plant in your landscape and lawn! Natural soil pH depends on the rock from which the soil was formed(parent material) and the weathering processes that acted on it—for example climate, vegetation, topography and time.

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