I have met him repeatedly and have felt the sympathetic charm of his personality. See Randall 1966. (Boodin 1939: 56), 6Whether Boodin’s specific variant of philosophical thinking should be seen as an expression of “European pragmatism” is hard to say. Holt, for example, claimed that “[t]he entities […] under study in logic, mathematics, and the physical sciences are not mental in any usual or proper meaning of the word ‘mental’” (Holt in Holt, 1910: 394). Both are viewed as epistemologies that present a different idea of what constitutes as knowledge . The knower and the known are related through certain energetic dependencies. He points out: For a comprehensive reconstruction of the energetic world-view, see Deltete 1983. . Nelson Charles H., (1984), “John Elof Boodin. , Boodin delivered a couple of programmatic clarifications. Few great reformations have been original, to any great extent, in their intellectual content. Misak 2013). (Ibid.). 1 For a comprehensive account of Boodin’s life and work, see Nelson 1984 (on which I primarily draw here). At any rate, Boodin’s contributions to the complex discussion of realism, pragmatism, and their mutual relationship are worth reconsidering. Only in so far as it intends a world beyond our finite cognitive purposes. Both approaches promise much. As Sellars makes it clear in his, (1922), the critical realist “is very sympathetic with the position of the pragmatist, albeit he thinks that many pragmatists are too utilitarian and do not value enough, or sufficiently admit, a theoretical interest in knowledge” (Sellars 1922: 55-6). Boodin himself writes at one place: “Whether I had any influence in turning pragmatism into a more realistic direction, I do not know.” (Boodin 1930: 140). Thus in an article from 1905, titled “The Realism of Pragmatism,” Dewey points out: Speaking of the matter only for myself, the presuppositions and tendencies of pragmatism are distinctly realistic; not idealistic in any sense in which idealism connotes or is connoted by the theory of knowledge. The Ostwald-Boltzmann Controvery, and Mach’s (Unnoticed) Middle-Way,”. As mentioned in the introduction, there are three main types of research philosophies, namely, positivism, interpretivism, and pragmatism (realism). 8 Furthermore, they demarcated their understanding of the term “critical” from the Kantian one by declaring that “the word ‘critical’ has no reference to the Kantian philosophy, which should not be allowed to monopolize that excellent adjective.” (Drake et al. Critical realism was developed most notably in the work of Ram Roy Bhaskar (2007; 2015), who developed it as a comprehensive philosophy of knowledge and being that offers an alternative to both positivism and constructivism, although it is arguably still somewhat dwarfed and/or marginalised by … 28It was in Volume No. Right at the beginning he makes the following critical statement: Naïve [i.e., new; M.N] and critical realism have one fundamental assumption in common. Boodin died in 1950. Realism pragmatism v3 3 Realism and Pragmatism in a mixed methods study Abstract Aim: A discussion of how adopting a Realist rather than Pragmatist methodology affects the conduct of mixed methods research. It is apparent that Boodin seeks some sort of “idealized” as well as “humanized” conception of reality and truth. We do not wonder over the disappointment at this lack of novelty of the pragmatic method. Drake Durant, Lovejoy Arthur O., Pratt James B., Rogers Arthur K., Santayana George, Wood Sellars Roy & Charles A. XIV). Thus in 1920 they published their, , which was subtitled “A Cooperative Study of the Problem of Knowledge.”. “Why,” he asks, “should a man’s soul be crowded into one system of philosophy?” (1908: 302). Rather, it is the driving force of natural processes and, as such, by all means knowable. At one of the Philosophy Club’s meetings, James gave a talk titled “Is Life Worth Living?”. And each artist is paid at least through the joy of the working and the appreciation he feels for such momentary beauty as each can produce. ‘Grant an idea or belief to be true,’ it says, ‘what concrete difference will its being true make in anyone’s actual life? (Boodin 1916: 71). However, one of his brothers had settled in Colchester some time before. The present paper is devoted to a systematic reconstruction of the philosophical approach of the Swedish-born thinker John Elof Boodin (1869-1950). 15 of The Monist, published in 1909. It was the greatest disappointment of his life that this did not happen.” (Nelson 1984: 145). It is for this reason that Boodin assumes that things cannot be infinitely divisible. In, he changes this sort of attitude in favor of what might be called a. of metaphysics. These are terms used primarily by methodologists and social theorists to describe and evaluate the theoretical assumptions underlying different approaches to research (Bickhard, 1992; Johnson, 2006; Hibberd, 2010). These latter conditions should be conceived of as – energetically definable – “truth-makers,” which in James’s theory wouldn’t find any place because of their being postulated as existing. The object, in other words, is dependent upon the cognitive moment not for its existence, but for its significance. Carus 1908; M.N.]. It was particularly Sellars who, in his. Section 4 discusses Boodin’s specific understanding, blending and eventual disentanglement of pragmatist and realist ideas. Realism is based on the thinking of Aristotle. is that pragmatism is the pursuit of practicality over aesthetic qualities; a concentration on facts rather than emotions or ideals while realism is a concern for fact or reality and rejection of the impractical and visionary. 34In the preface to his 1916 Realistic Universe, Boodin delivered a couple of programmatic clarifications. (1916: xvii). There he studied philosophy and received his master’s degree in 1896. It was the greatest disappointment of his life that this did not happen.” (Nelson 1984: 145). However, Carus’s own philosophical outlook was that of a Spinozist and a Buddhist (cf. by the assertion that: To be means simply to express, to embody the complete internal meaning of a certain absolute system of ideas, – a system, moreover, which is genuinely implied in the true internal meaning of purpose of every finite idea, however fragmentary.” (Royce 1900, 36). On the other hand, the realist aspect as such is undermined, or at least downplayed, by statements such as: “Things are the result of interest and conceptual interpretation.” (Ibid. In the same year, he was elected to membership in the permanent council of the World Congress of Philosophy. Boodin transferred his college studies to the University of Minnesota and made acquaintance with the work of William James. Matter is applicable only within a limited field. Besides idealism, neo-realism, and pragmatism there existed a further influential movement, namely so-called, realism. Each one is allowed to choose his own task, make his own plan and fix his own salary. either in spirit or method” (1916: ix-x). Moreover, classical pragmatism had shifted to so-called neo-pragmatism, especially with the appearance of C. I. Lewis’s, is that it is far too selective. Boodin John Elof, (1916), A Realistic Universe: An Introduction to Metaphysics, New York, Macmillan. At any rate, Boodin starts his article with the following characterization: In the first place, pragmatism as a doctrine is so simple and so old as a matter of scientific procedure that it is impossible to understand why so much dust should have been raised about it by its opponents. an exposition of his views without reference to the controversy in question.” (Editorial Comment to Boodin 1910: 614). (Sellars 1922: 127). […] [H]is critical speech had made a permanent impression. Yet, the philosophical scenario in the 1910s and 1920s was quite complex. (Peirce’s paper had the title “What Pragmatism Is”). Boodin therefore declares: “We must hold to the pragmatic postulate that energy is what it does.”, . However, a more charitable reading would account for the fact that the systematical and historical relation of pragmatism and realism, as it were. Besides idealism, neo-realism, and pragmatism there existed a further influential movement, namely so-called critical realism. 10 When he wrote the 1908 paper, Boodin already had a professorship at the University of Kansas. Slurink Pouwel, (1996), “Back to Roy Wood Sellars: Why His Evolutionary Naturalism Is Still Worthwile,” Journal of the History of Philosophy, 34, 425-49. 2John Elof Boodin was born in Pjätteryd, Småland (Southern Sweden), in 1869. Our realism is not a physically monistic realism, or a merely logical realism, and escapes the many difficulties which have prevented the general acceptance of the “new” realism. the sort of eclectic fusion to be found in Boodin’s later work. They are centers of produced change. I was introduced to the group by a friend of mine, the brilliant and human William James, who spent a lifetime trying to provide a framework and who is now at work on some plans for the interior. However, the prevailing attitude toward pragmatism in the critical realist camp was unfavorable. true by events. ‘Grant an idea or belief to be true,’ it says, ‘what concrete difference will its being true make in anyone’s actual life? His major contributions to theoretical philosophy are the following: the 1911 book, , Boodin explicitly argues for what he calls “pragmatic realism” (see Boodin 1911a, esp. either in spirit or method” (1916: ix-x). Boodin died in 1950. When reflecting back on the early parts of his career, W. Sellars claimed that: 17James’s conception of philosophy stands, according to Boodin, in that very tradition. Whether we can realize it or not only the historical outcome of the pragmatic test can prove.” (Ibid. A Winter Revery.” It appeared in, had appeared in 1907. There he studied philosophy and received his master’s degree in 1896. […] Pragmatism believes that in knowledge as a fact, an accomplished matter, things are “representative of another.” Ideas, sensations, mental states are, in their cognitive significance, media of so adjusting things to one another that they become representative of one another. Much the same is asserted by Boodin when we writes: In order to prevent misunderstandings let me emphasize that I do, claim that Boodin simply took over one of Sellars’s most prominent ideas. Yet it is important to emphasize that this does not imply a “relapse” to materialism. And he continues: When he wrote the 1908 paper, Boodin already had a professorship at the University of Kansas. Rather, “[t]he thing must suggest an own center of energy”, . As Sellars further points out, critical realism is a “mediate” (77) position. 14 In this case, too, an Editorial Comment was attached. However, the prevailing attitude toward pragmatism in the critical realist camp was unfavorable. However, one of his brothers had settled in Colchester some time before. Lovejoy Arthur O., (1920), “Pragmatism Versus the Pragmatist,” in Durant Drake, Arthur O. Lovejoy, James B. Pratt, Arthur K. Rogers, George Santayana, Roy Wood Sellars, & Charles A. In A Realistic Universe he changes this sort of attitude in favor of what might be called a scientifically informed account of metaphysics. (Boodin 1911a: 85). At any rate, the emigration to the United States fundamentally changed Boodin’s overall outlook. Critical realism refers to a philosophical position on the world and science. It runs on all fours with the perfectly wise man, and with the absolutely complete experience.” (James 2017 : 82). Thus, if at all, then functional realism stood in sharp contrast to the essentialist version of critical realism. James’s “Does Consciousness Exist?” is a good example in this respect. Suzuki Daisetz T., (1962), The Essentials of Zen Buddhism, New York, Greenwood Press. The temple may never be finished, as each artist and each generation of artists modify the plans to suit their own ideals. As concerns his primary sources of inspiration, he mentions James, Royce and “the vitalizing influence in our country of its great teacher, John Dewey, and the Chicago School” (1916: ix). See esp. In 1899, Boodin finished his dissertation on “The Concept of Time.”. Laying the focus on what is implied by a realistic – in contrast to an idealistic – point of view, he declares: Leaving out all reference to the metaphysical stuff for the time being, realism means the reference to an object existing beyond the apperceptive unity of momentary individual consciousness, and that this object can make a difference to that consciousness so as to be known. Few sociologists would describe themselves as a positivist, interpretivist or realist. Sellars (1922: 72-3) and the reconstruction in Slurink 1996. In James’s words, the same message reads thus: “The ‘absolutely’ true, meaning what no farther experience will ever alter, is that ideal vanishing-point towards which we imagine that all our temporary truths will some day converge. We will come back to this point in a moment. 2 Werkmeister writes in this connection: “James was instrumental in preparing the way for realism. he provides the reader with the following picture: Boodin is extremely enthusiastic about the prospects of this whole enterprise. It is only when pursued in this spirit that metaphysics can take rank as a science, and, at least in its ideal, as the science of sciences. Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License; The pursuit of practicality over aesthetic qualities; a concentration on facts rather than emotions or ideals. Sellars Roy Wood, (1916), Critical Realism: A Study of the Nature and Conditions of Knowledge, Chicago and New York, Rand McNally and Company. Holt, Montague and Perry all had studied under Royce at Harvard. (politics) The theory that political problems should be met with practical solutions rather than ideological ones. In the paper, Boodin repudiates both of these two forms. His personality as well as his philosophy had a marked and far-reaching influence upon a whole generation of American thinkers. Rather, things possess properties “only within a system, and such properties vary with the conditions which determine the system” (1916: 35). Michael Heidelberger & Friedrich Stadler (eds), History of Philosophy of Science: New Trends and Perspectives, Charles S., (1905), “What Pragmatism Is,”, Present Philosophical Tendencies: A Critical Survey of Naturalism, Idealism, Pragmatism, and Realism, Together With a Synopsis of the Philosophy of William James, John H., (1966), “Josiah Royce and American Idealism,”, Skepticism and Animal Faith: Introduction to a System of Philosophy, Roy Wood, (1908), “Critical Realism and the Time Problem,”, Critical Realism: A Study of the Nature and Conditions of Knowledge. After a short time working in a “low vein” mine owned by the Quincy Coal Company, Boodin attended Augustana College in Rock Island, Illinois, in 1890-91 where he studied Latin, Greek, Swedish, and Geometry. Consequently, both idealism and materialism are, in his view, variants of “dogmatism” (ibid. Moreover, his Harvard student fellows, such as Holt, Montague or Perry, attempted to interpret James’s account of pragmatism within a realistic framework.2 Accordingly, a fusion of pragmatism and realism seemed to be en vogue among the younger Harvard generation. There, he primarily studied with the American idealist Josiah Royce and came in closer (friendship-like) contact with James. Furthermore, he participated in the department Philosophy Club. According to Boodin, on the other hand, “[t]ruth is our version of reality. His own approach, Boodin maintains, “has little in common with it [i.e., new realism; M.N.] Boodin 1916: 3). Ostwald 1895) energetics (or “energism”) qualifies as an alternative to the materialistic point of view. The main difference between critical theory and constructivism is that critical theory is a theory focusing on critiquing and changing society as a whole while constructivism is a theory that states humans construct knowledge through their intelligence, experiences and interactions with the world.. Critical theory and constructivism are two key concepts you encounter in sociology. Consequently, “we cannot resolve reality, whether conscious or unconscious, into bundles of perception, or into experience of any form, altogether. Accordingly, science, from the pragmatist point of view, is “a systematic sorting of experience in the realization of our interests” (, The following passages from James’s 1907 lecture series might corroborate this diagnosis: “Pragmati. 23All of this sounds pretty Jamesian.12 And the same holds true for the following passage (although it could likewise be read before the Peircean background): Is pragmatism realistic? And the same holds true for the following passage (although it could likewise be read before the Peircean background): In James’s words, the same message reads thus: “The ‘absolutely’ true, meaning what no farther expe, On the whole, Boodin applauds the Jamesian variant of pragmatism. Chapter III of. For him, [p]hysical things possess dynamic capacities. Interestingly enough, the dedication of that book reads as follows: “To my friend and teacher William James, not the late but the ever living and inspiring genius of American philosophy, this book is affectionately dedicated.” The five years later published, , then, is dedicated to “my friend and teacher Josiah Royce.” In programmatic terms, Boodin argues in that book for what he now calls “pragmatic energism” (see Boodin 1916, esp. 1920: vi). […] It is nonsense to speak of an hypothesis, which is our meaning or attitude, as true previous to verification; but previous to verification there exist certain conditions, which make some hypotheses come true.” (Boodin 1911b: 228). “Why,” he asks, “should a man’s soul be crowded into one system of philosophy?” (1908: 302). 19(1), 83–95 (2012) CrossRef Google Scholar 19It was certainly this very passage that provoked the following critical comment by the journal’s editors: Pragmatism is the latest philosophical movement which is at present sweeping over the country, and the foregoing article by Professor Boodin may be taken as a typical instance of the philosophic temperament that is at present in the ascendancy. And in recent years interesting experiments have been made by Rutherford and others to prove the real existence of the atom. See, in this connection, already Lovejoy 1908; further, for an evaluation, Kuklick 2017. : 603) and not a “brand of metaphysics” (ibid.). As Sellars makes it clear in his Evolutionary Naturalism (1922), the critical realist “is very sympathetic with the position of the pragmatist, albeit he thinks that many pragmatists are too utilitarian and do not value enough, or sufficiently admit, a theoretical interest in knowledge” (Sellars 1922: 55-6). Misak Cheryl, (2013), The American Pragmatists, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Boodin therefore declares: “We must hold to the pragmatic postulate that energy is what it does.” (Ibid.). Boodin’s own solution to that problem amounts to the endorsement of contemporary. All in all, one might suspect that Boodin eventually got lost in the -isms. A Winter Revery,”, John Elof, (1909), “What Pragmatism Is and Is not,”, Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods, John Elof, (1911a), “From Protagoras to William James,”, Truth and Reality: An Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge, A Realistic Universe: An Introduction to Metaphysics, John Elof, (1930), “Nature and Reason,” in, Contemporary American Philosophy: Personal Statements. For the time being, it is important to note that, according to Boodin, any talk of truth requires some basis in the extra-mental realm. ch. Boodin John Elof, (1911a), “From Protagoras to William James,” The Monist, 21, 73-91. Sixty-Second Philosopher (Seek to 49:30): Ian Shoales speeds through the origins of pragmatism and its misapprehension throughout American history. John Elof, (1908), “Philosophic Tolerance. “The truth of an idea or plan,” he writes, “must be tested by the procedure to which it leads.”, . 10). Lovejoy Arthur O., (1908), “The Thirteen Pragmatisms,” Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods, 5, 5-12. Misak 2013). in 1937. In his opinion, “the doctrine commonly put forward as ‘pragmatism’ may be said to be a changeling, substituted almost in the cradle” (Lovejoy 1920: 80).9. Thus one can read in his book The Social Mind from 1939: I was uprooted from my community. In 1932-33 he had already served as president of the American Philosophical Association, Western Division. Robert J., (1983), “The Energetics Controversy in Late Nineteenth Century Germany: Helm, Ostwald, and Their Critics,” PhD diss., Yale University. Carus 1908; M.N.]. Professor Boodin has not made use of the invitation, but prefers to offer to the readers of The Monist an exposition of his views without reference to the controversy in question.” (Editorial Comment to Boodin 1910: 614). On the other hand, he explicitly demarcates his position from “the movement sometimes called ‘the new realism’” (ibid.). The functional aspect as such can already be found in. According to Pihlström, Boodin was of the opinion “that his work and training on his home farm with intimate contact with nature may have made him an ‘empirical realist’” (Pihlström 2010: 6). Boodin does not refer to James’s lecture series in his paper, but he mentions the latter’s “favorite principle of pragmatism” (Boodin 1908: 305). Just as in the case of Ostwald (cf. Peirce Charles S., (1905), “What Pragmatism Is,” The Monist, 15, 161-81. As I understand this method it means simply to carry the scientific spirit into metaphysics. 13As for the movement’s label, the critical realists were critical insofar as they aimed at a more reflected approach to the issue of cognition (especially perception) than our everyday’s “naïve” as well as philosophical “new” realism.8 They were realist insofar as they, on the other hand, agreed with new realism in the postulation of the existence of mind-independent things. “The truth of an idea or plan,” he writes, “must be tested by the procedure to which it leads.” (Ibid.). Rather, it is the driving force of natural processes and, as such, by all means knowable. 1, edited by George P. Adams & William Pepperell Montague, New York, Macmillan,135-66. Critical Realism and Pragmatism in Educational Research. and that “[o]ur standards of measurement, whether of energy, time, or space, are all alike pragmatic” (ibid.). & Edward G. Spaulding (eds), (1910), “The Program and First Platform of Six Realists,” The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods, 7, 393-401. At any rate, Boodin starts his article with the following characterization: As Boodin further makes it clear, the pragmatist holds that the truth of a hypothesis stands in close connection to human habit and conduct. There were many. 43Much the same is asserted by Boodin when we writes: As opposed to the assumption of things in themselves with properties in themselves, functional realism holds in common with present science that the bifurcation of thing and environment is vicious, that things exist only in fields, in mutuality with other things, and that they have properties only in their dynamic interrelations. It is all but astonishing that Boodin continues thus: ’s editors (most probably Carus) laconically commented upon this claim by raising the following question: “If pragmatism avowedly accepts the scientific method, would it not be better to call it the ‘Philosophy of Science’?” (Editorial Comment to Boodin 1910: 614). Our next task will be to determine what he made out of this kind of situation. Maybe the present volume helps to come closer to an answer to that question. Qualitative research is often associated with interpretivism, but alternatives do exist. At the same time he speaks of “my friend Royce” (1908: 303), mentions the latter’s “absolute idealism” (1908: 300) and suggests that “[i]deals may prove truer than facts”, . DeForge, R., Shaw, J.: Back-and fore-grounding ontology: exploring the linkages between critical realism, pragmatism, and methodologies in health & rehabilitation sciences. But already two years earlier they had published “The Program and First Platform of Six Realists.” In this manifesto, they came along with a couple of – more or less general – realist theses. Maybe his Swedish rural growing up, as it were, predestined him in terms of viewing the world from a primarily realistic point of view. […] If we, however, regard the universe under the conception of plural energetic centers, which can figure in various contexts, including our cognitive context, and some at least as having meaning of their own and capable of entering into cognitive relations with us; and if, furthermore, we regard cognitive purposes as themselves energies, evolving in complexity with, and having survival value through, their control of other energies, such as the physiological, then the paradox is resolved […]. (Nelson 1984: 137), 3In 1897, Boodin eventually entered Harvard (on a Hopkins scholarship). (Ibid. He categorically distinguishes between “prediction and control of certain practical situations” (1911b: 60), on the one hand, and “nature in the abstract” (ibid. We will see later why. Furthermore, he participated in the department Philosophy Club. is therefore wrongheaded.18 For Boodin, “our experience, at any rate, seems to depend in many ways upon an extra-experiential constitution” (1916: 16). : it should be met with practical solutions rather than ideological ones contrast to the pragmatists, Evolutionary,! Of view change meant a change of History and tradition it was in this connection: James.: “ we must take it as, in this connection, on... A different idea of what might be called a scientifically informed account of “ idealized ” as well ” in... Determine what he made out of this kind of metaphysics to dictate to reality what must... I understand this method it means simply to carry the scientific spirit into metaphysics, fn who would be as! 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