Compared to Hepburn, Nihon-shiki is more systematic in its representation of the Japanese syllabary (kana), as each symbol corresponds to a phoneme. Hepburn is based on English phonology and has competed with the alternative Nihon-shiki romanization, which was developed in Japan as a replacement of Japanese script. The consonant spellings I’ve … , In 1930, a Special Romanization Study Commission, headed by the Minister of Education, was appointed by the government to devise a standardized form of romanization. kanji. The two most common styles are as follows: In Japan itself, there are some variants officially mandated for various uses: Details of the variants can be found below. The romanizations set out in the first and second versions of Hepburn's dictionary are primarily of historical interest. The most common system of romanization is the Hepburn system, known as hebon-shiki (ヘボン式) in Japanese. The modified Hepburn system of romanization as employed in Kenkyusha's New Japanese-English Dictionary (3rd and later editions) is used. These combinations are used mainly to represent the sounds in words in other languages. As of 1977, many government organizations used Hepburn, including the Ministry of International Trade and Industry; the Ministry of Foreign Affairs requires the use of Hepburn on passports, and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport requires its use on transport signs, including road signs and railway station signs. In fact, the standard of romanization used by the world's leading publications, most international Japanese corporations, most Japanese news publications, and even most ministries of the Japanese government is a modified version of the Hepburn style of romanization.  The directive had no legal force, however, and a revised version of Kunrei-shiki was reissued by cabinet ordinance on December 9, 1954, after the end of occupation. The ALA-LC Romanization Table for Japanese instructs catalogers to consult multiple editions of Kenkyusha's New Japanese-English Dictionary and the American National Standard system concerning the Modified Hepburn romanization system. Japanese Romanization System Tables of roman/kana equivalents based in part on both Kenkyusha’s table (in p. xiii for 4th edition) and on the American National Standard System standard. On the right column, the Japanese is presented in standard Japanese script with furigana for all kanji. In Japan, a small circle is generally used instead of … It is named after the US missionary James Curtis Hepburn, who popularized its … Japanese literature specialists tend to use the modified Hepburn system found in Kenkyusha dictionaries. Kanji Jiten), then romanizing the . argue that it is not intended as a linguistic tool, and that individuals who only speak English or a Romance language will generally be more accurate when pronouncing unfamiliar words romanized in the Hepburn style compared to other systems.. It is not possible to make an n sound before a b , p or m sound like "shinbun", "hanpa" or "Gunma" as written, unless the speaker pauses to close the mouth after producing the n. The Hepburn system is the most commonly used romanisation system, especially in the English-speaking world. 87 0 obj <> endobj For example, 東京 (とうきょう) is properly romanized as Tōkyō, but can also be written as: Elongated (or "geminate") consonant sounds are marked by doubling the consonant following a sokuon, っ; for consonants that are digraphs in Hepburn (sh, ch, ts), only the first consonant of the set is doubled, except for ch, which is replaced by tch.. %PDF-1.5 %����  However, the notation requires further explanation for accurate pronunciation by non-Japanese speakers: for example, the syllables [ɕi] and [tɕa], which are written as shi and cha in Hepburn, are rendered as si and tya in Nihon-shiki. Usage questions are printed in two different ways of representing Japanese. Hepburn s Place in History. This system is the one used in this Frequently Asked Questions.  In 1908, Hepburn was revised by educator Kanō Jigorō and others of the Romaji Hirome-kai, which began calling it the Shūsei Hebon-shiki (修正ヘボン式, "modified Hepburn system") or Hyōjun-shiki (標準式, "standard system"). , After the Russo-Japanese War (1904–05), the two factions resurfaced as the Romaji Hirome-kai (ローマ字ひろめ会, "Society for the Spread of Romanization"), which supported Hepburn's style, and the Nihon no Romaji-sha (日本のローマ字社, "Romanization Society of Japan"), which supported Nihon-shiki. or . The Japanese syllable ending “n” when it appears before b, m, or p is rendered m, as it is pronounced (e.g., sambō [three treasures], hommon [essential teaching], jūjō-kampō [ten meditations] ), except when separated from these letters by a hyphen (Jōken-bō). This system is well adapted to the general needs of speakers of English and is the most widely used system for romanization of Japanese. In 1930, a Special Romanization Study Commission was appointed to compare the two. h�bbd``b`��@�q+�`�/@� �!��qeA,M"�@�.H�Hܘ�����d#:��@� �C There are many variants of the Hepburn romanization. In Hepburn, vowel combinations that form a long sound are usually indicated with a macron ( ¯ ). 1. Of the five, Hepburn was the oldest and the most successful. The Commission eventually decided in favor of a slightly modified version of Nihon-shiki, which was proclaimed to be Japan's official romanization for all purposes by a September 21, 1937 cabinet ordinance and is now known as Kunrei-shiki. furigana. Notable differences from the third and later versions include: The following differences are in addition to those in the second version: The main feature of Hepburn is that its orthography is based on English phonology. japanese.romanize(text[, config]) Convert input text into romaji. , Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, International Organization for Standardization, Kenkyusha's New Japanese-English Dictionary, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, "Modified Hepburn Romanization System in Japanese Language Cataloging: Where to Look, What to Follow", "UHM Library : Japan Collection Online Resources", Bureau of Citizens and Culture Affairs of Tokyo, "Example of Application Form for Passport", "Pocket Kenkyusha Japanese Dictionary (9780198607489): Shigeru Takebayashi, Kazuhiko Nagai: Books", Preface of first edition of Hepburn's original dictionary, explaining romanization, Preface of third edition of Hepburn's original dictionary, explaining romanization, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hepburn_romanization&oldid=991453068, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from May 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 03:34. On the left column, the Japanese is written in the most common type of Romanization (romaji), a modified Hepburn system. Hepburn is based on English phonology and has competed with the alternative Nihon-shiki romanization, which was developed in Japan as a replacement of the Japanese script. The modified Hepburn system for the romanization of Japanese has been in use by the BGN and the PCGN since the 1930’s and has been used extensively in the romanization of Japanese geographic names. Languages that don’t use the Latin alphabet often have multiple romanization schemes, each of which will have various advantages and disadvantages. Word Reading The reading of Japanese words follows standard Japanese language usage, insofar as this can %%EOF ... Due to later adjustments, it is sometimes known as the modified Hepburn system. , American National Standard System for the Romanization of Japanese (ANSI Z39.11-1972), based on modified Hepburn, was approved in 1971 and published in 1972 by the American National Standards Institute.
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